Social Dimension of Education (LECTURE)
Sociologist offer different theoretical perspective that are anchored on the concept that school is an open system to explain the relationship between the school and the society. The diverse sociological explanations enable educators to understand how the school, as a social institution of society, interacts with social environment as they perform their important role in their unique way either as agents of cultural and social transmission or as agents of social transformation.
The Nature of Education
Sociology provides educators as special perspective in studying the school and society. Schools, by their nature are social organizations. Because of the nature of education, the study of school systems becomes the concern of sociologists. Sociologist study the social issues and concerns in education which impact on socialization.
The Role of Schools
Dr. Adelaida Bago, in her book Social Dimensions in the Philippine Education, stresses there are two possible purpose or roles of schools:
- There are those who believe that one role of the school is to educate citizens to fit into society
- There are those who believe that the role of the school is to educate citizens to change the society
The Specific purposes of the school are the following:
- Cognitive Purposes- teaching the basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing and speaking.
- Political Purposes- inculcation of patriotism or loyalty to the existing political order.
- Social Purposes- concerns with the socialization of citizens into their various roles in society.
- Economic Purposes- involves training and preparation of citizens for the world of work.
School as Open System
School are open systems that draw their inputs and send back their outputs to the environment. An open system, like a living organism, has a homeostatic nature. Homeostasis is the property of open system to regulate its internal environment to maintain stable constant condition. This is done through internal regulation mechanisms of inter-related and interaction parts that counteract any departure from the normal or usual.
To provide logical explanations for why things happen the way they do in group situations, sociologists make use of theoretical perspective. These theories also become the basis for analyzing curriculum, instruction and structure in the school organization. The functionalist and Conflict Theories focus macro-level sociological analysis, while the interaction theory focuses on the micro level analysis.
- The Functionalist Theory- (other known as equilibrium theory). The key terms in of society. Social equilibrium is achieved through the process of socialization of members into the basic values norms of particular group so that consensus is reached. The different parts or members of the society are interdependent grouped and organized to form a system.
- Talcot Parsons- conceptualized society as a collection of systems within systems (McLeland, 2000)
- Emile Durkheim- believed that education plays a significant roles in creating, moral unity, which is an imperative in social cohesion and harmony, Durkheim defined education and the concerns of sociology as follows: “ Education is the influence exercised by adult generations on those that are not yet ready for social life, its object is to arouse and to develop in the child a certain number of physical, intellectual and moral states which are demanded of him by both the political society as a whole and special milieu for which he is specifically destined..
- Conflict Theory- assumes a tension in society and its part due to competing interest of individuals and groups. Adherents of the theory argue that what holds society together is economic, political, cultural, military power and note shared values alone. The social order is based on the stability of dominant groups to impose their will on others who are powerless. The Conflict theory is based on four interlocking concepts: competition, structural inequality, revolution and war.
- Karl Marx- the founder of the conflict school of thought believed that because the class system separates the employers from workers and workers from the benefits of their own labor, class struggle is inevitable. According to him inevitably the workers would overthrow the capatalists and establish a new society where the proletariat could freely avail of the benefits of their labor.
- Max Weber- the father of bureaucratic thought was convinced that although power relations between dominant and powerless group shape society, class differences alone could not fully explain the complex way human beings from hierarchies and belief systems and make them work. Weber examined status cultures as well as class positions. According to him, the main activity of schools is to teach particular “status cultures” both in and outside the classroom
- Interaction Theories- the focus of the interaction theory is the communication and the relationship that exists among and between groups in education- peers, teachers, students, teacher-principal and teacher- parents. The concern is to study the social-psychological questions that impact on normative attitudes, values, aspirations and self –concepts of particular groups that in return impact on the teaching- learning process.
- Labeling Theory- this theory is related to expectations. For instance, in general the expectations of significant others on the learners, determine to a large extent in the behavior of students. To this extent, the processes by which students are labeled either as gifted or learning disabled, fast or slow learner, smart or dumb, affect the quality as well as the extent and speed of learning.
- Exchange Theory- is based on the concept of reciprocity or”katugunan”. Reciprocal interactions bind individuals ( teachers, students, parents, administrators) with obligations. The consequences of interaction are rewards and benefits.
Interaction in Philippine Setting
Jocano (1998) proposed a social framework that could be used as basis for understanding the relationships and interaction between and among groups in the Philippine education setting. The Framework shows the interlocking and interfacing of relationships of kinship and family, socialization practices and cultural themes that impact on the school system.
- Culture- is the complex whole which includes the customs, beliefs, more, folkways of a certain group of people.
- Education is transferring of culture
- Sub-Culture- specialized from culture practiced by a small group of people which shows uniqueness compared to other groups.
- Norm- what is considered” normal” is basically based on the number of people practicing a certain behavior.
Kinds of Groups
- Primary group
- Secondary group
- In group
- Out group
- Reference group
- Peer group
Types of Groups
- Integrated group- the members have common action in shared meanings and values
- Crowed- members act together on the basis of a shared emotion and feelings, as in religious revival meetings, revolutionary mob or a panic.
- Audience or mass– members act together on the basis of a common attitudes without interaction among members; like people at film showing.
- Public-this refers a number of people in some form of community come to a common agreement who have common interest but do not necessarily come to a common agreement.
Social Institution Defined:
According to Anthony Giddens, Social Institutions are” enduring features of social life”. It is a complex of positions, norms and social relations performing a social role. Social institutions includes government, families, and other groups of people with recognizable social interaction and norms of conduct.
- Social Purpose-institution satisfy social needs
- Permanence-institution are relatively permanent
- Enforcing rules and regulations- institution governs behavior
- Promotes values- institution exerts social pressure regarding right conduct
Major Social Institutions
- Family – is a group of people affiliated by consanguinity, affinity and co-residence. It is the smallest social institution. One of the primary function of the family is to produce and reproduce persons both biologically and socially (in cases of adoption).
- Conjugal Family-includes the husband, wife, and children who are not of age yet.
- Consanguinity Family– consist of a parent and his or her children, and other people.
- Matrilocal Family- consists of a mother and her children
Transmission of knowledge is the primary purpose of education. As a social institution school has the following purpose.
- Intellectual-schools teach basic knowledge and skills commonly known as the 3 Rs and eventually developing their HOTS (higher order thinking skills)
- Political-schools develop allegiance to the country and promotes patriotism
- Social-schools develop person’s ability to interact with fellow human being
- Economic-schools prepare the person to achieve suitable occupational endeavors.
According to Stark religion is the “socially defined patterns of beliefs concerning the ultimate meaning of life; it assumes the existence of the supernatural”
- Belief in the higher being (deity)
- Doctrine of salvation
- A code of conduct
- Religious rituals
A government is an institution entrusted with making and enforcing the rules of a society as well as with regulating relations with other societies. In order to be considered a government, a ruling body must be recognized as such by the people it purpose to govern.
Types of Government
Social Problems– growing groups and countries experience various societal problem brought about by various factors.
- Juvenile delinquency
- Drug addiction
- Racial prejudice
- Industrial conflict
- Graft and corruption
Social Control- refers to the ways in which members of a society influence one another so as to maintain social order.
Informal Social Control
- Mores and folkways
- Expectations not written down but perceived and made known to him
- Pressure to conform
- Internalizing the values and attitudes of family
- Helping the child to understand and norms of the bigger group
- Desire for acceptance of the bigger group
Formal Social Control
- Passage of law
- Formal mechanism to maintain control over the behavior of its members
- Tendency to level an individual who is out of line and gossip
- Curbing anti-social attitudes by disallowing privacy or ascribing undesirable status to deviants.
Social process- sociologist have noted that social change occurs in patterns and these patterns are called social process, this is also used to interpret social behavior.
Classification of Social Process
Competition- an impersonal attempt to gain scare and valued resources of wealth, land etc.
Conflict- involves the use of deliberate power
Accommodation-is the conscious adjustment and compromise among conflicting groups to live without conflict
Assimilation-is the learning and acceptance by one group of the beliefs and values of another groups so that they gradually become virtually indistinguishable.
Characteristics of Culture
- Culture is Learned
- Family orientation
- Joy and humor
- Flexibility, adaptability, creativity
- Hardwork and industry
- Faith and religiosity
- Ability to survive
Weakness of the Filipino Character
- Extreme personalism
- Extreme family centeredness
- Lack of discipline
- Passivity and lack of initiative
- Colonial mentality
- Kanya-kanya syndrome
- Lack of self-analysis and self-reflection
PILLARS OF LEARNING
- The Four Pillars of Education all started with the report entitled” Learning the Treasure within” of the International Commission of Education for the Twenty-first –Century chaired by Jacques Delors in 1996. It was published by the UNESCO.
- The report itself provides new insights into education for the 21st century. It stresses that each individual must be equipped to seize learning opportunities throughout life broaden one’s knowledge, skills and attitudes, and adapt to a changing complex and interdependent world.
LEARNING TO KNOW
- Implies learning how to learn by developing one’s concentration, memory skills and ability to think; acquiring the instrument of understanding.
- To learn to know, students need to develop learn-to-learn-skills. Such skills are learning to read with comprehension, listening, observing, asking question, data gathering, note taking and accessing, processing, selecting and using information
- The role of the teacher is as facilitator, catalyst, monitor and evaluator of learning.
LEARNING TO DO
- Represents the skillful, creative and discerning application of knowledge
- One must learn how to think creatively, critically and holistically, and how to deeply understand the information that is presented.
- To perform a job or work, the learning to do must be fulfilled. This entails the acquisition of competence that enables people to deal with a variety of situations, and to work in teams.
LEARNING TO LIVE TOGETHER
- Vital in building a genuine and lasting culture of peace in the world.
- Can be achieved by developing in understanding of others and their history, traditions and spiritual values, and appreciation of interdependence.
- A wide range of skills is necessary for the pillar of education; self-control, handling emotions, communication, interpretation of behaviors, critical thinking, relationship building and cooperation, negotiation, mediation and refusal, problem solving and decision making.
- Teachers should help the students realize the value of being able to live together, in their gradually enlarging world: home, school, community, city, town, province, country, and the world as a global village.
LEARNING TO BE
- Dominant theme of Edgar Faure is report” Learning to Be: The World of Education Today and Tomorrow”, published UNESCO
- If refers to the role of education in developing all the dimensions of the complete person: to achieve the physical, intellectual, emotional and ethical integration of the individual into a complete man. Pertains to the overall development of the human person as individual and a member of the society
GENDER and DEVELOPMENT
In many countries where women still face discrimination, let us promote gender equality and development between boys and girls in primary school. It is the 3rd UN Millennium Goal which aims to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and all levels of education no later than 2015. Let us step up to empower women in access to education, work and involvement in decision making.”
Gender and development or GAD is an approach on socially constructed basis of the difference between men and women and emphasized the need to challenge the existing gender roles and relations.
Sex vs Gender
|Categorized as male or female|
Fixed at birth
Does not change across time and space
|Masculinity and femininity|
Socially, culturally and historically determined
Learned through socialization
Varies over time and space
Unequally valued (masculinity as the norm
Socialization- is a process by which social norms, roles and expectations are learned and internalize.
Gender Socialization- is a process by which norms, roles and expectation in relation to gender are learned by men and women.
Gender Stereotype-a form of prejudgment, bias or limitation given to roles and expectations of male and females.
Channel of Socialization
- Verbal Application
- Activity Exposure
- Instructional Language
- Classroom Management
- Instructional Materials
Cultural Dimensions of Learning
- A field of study and an emerging discipline whose major aim is to create equal opportunities from diverse racial, ethnic, social class and cultural groups.
- The primary goal of multicultural education is to transform the school so that male and female students, exceptional students, and students from diverse cultural social-class, racial, and ethnic groups experience an equal opportunity to learn.
TEACHING IN MULTI CULTURAL CLASSES
- Multicultural education embodies a perspective rather than a curriculum. Teachers must consider children’s cultural identities and be aware of their own biases
- Teachers and parents need to acknowledge the fact that we are inevitably influenced by the stereotypes and one-sided view of society that exists in our schools and the media. Hence, we must we recognized those biases and change the attitude they represent by accepting all children as we receive them.
- OPPRESSION- (racism or biased attitudes) a problem in multi cultural classes vs OPPENESS-developing as much effort to changing to learn about other’s culture, nurturing diversity by making multicultural education a process of action.
LEGAL DIMENSIONS OF THE PHILIPPINE EDUCATION
The educational system in terms of curriculum, instruction, structure and organization at any given period of history is defined by organic laws, acts, and policies crafted by legal and educational experts as well as national policy makers. These statutes provide direction and guidance to those involved in the educational system.
- Monroe Survey (1925)- The work of the commission because the basis for reforms in administrative organization and supervision, basic and higher education, teacher education and training, language instruction, private education, finance and education of non-Christians. ( martin, 1980)
- Swamson Survey (1959)- Two important recommendations of the Commission were the restoration of grade 7 and the provision of higher financing for schools. (Martin, 1980)
- PCSPE(1989)- Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education-recommendations of the commission include:
- Mismatch between educational priorities and national development priorities.
- Lack of systemic planning and evaluation in education became the basis for major reforms.
- EDCOM (1991) -Congressional Commission on Education-some of the radical changes that came about as a result of the EDCOM report were: the creation of the independent Commission on Higher Education (CHED), the professionalization of teachers through the creation of the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET), the clear definition of career service paths for teachers and administrators, the creation of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority( TESDA).
- PCER (1999)- Presidential Commission on Educational Reform- the recommendations of the commission became the basis for the formulation of a package of policy and projects known as the Higher Education Development Project ( HEDP)
SPECIFIC DECREES, ACTS & LAWS (Legalizing Philippine Education)
PROVISIONAL CONSTITUTION OF BIAK NA BATO
Article XV- The Secretary of Interior was to take charge among other duties, with the advancement of the public instruction.
- Elimination of the friar control over all or most aspects of education
- Secularization of a universal system of primary education
- Greater supervision and control higher education by the state
- Implementation of a more modern and progressive educational system patterned ater western models
THE MALOLOS CONSTITUTION (1899 Constitution)
Article 23 not only contain instruction regarding the public schools; it also specifies the manner by which private schools maybe established in order to provide more access to education to a greater number of Filipinos. All primary education was offered free and compulsory in all schools in the country as explicitly stated in the constitution.
“Any Filipino may establish and maintain institutions of learning, in accordance with the laws authorizing them, Public Education shall be free and obligatory in all schools of the nation”
THE 1935 CONSTITUTION
Article XIV- provides ”All schools shall aim to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience, and vocational efficiency, and to teach the duties of citizenship”
Article XIV, Sec 5; “All educational institution shall be under the supervision of a subject to regulation by the state. The government shall establish and maintain a complete and adequate system of public education, and shall provide at least free public primary instruction and citizenship training to adult citizens.
The Japanese occupied the City of Manila in 1942. Subsequently, the Japanese dissolved the National Government and replaced it with Central Administrative Organization of the Japanes Army. The Japanese created the Department of Education, Health and Public Welfare with Claro M. Recto as commissioner. The Bureau of Private Education supervised private schools and colleges. The six basic principles of Japanese education basic principles of Japanese education in the Philippines include the following as enumerated by Bago.
- To make people understand the position of the Philippines as member of the EAST-ASIA Co Prosperity Sphere.
- To eradicate the old idea of the reliance upon the western nations especially upon the United States and Great Britain, and to posters a new Filipino culture based on the self-consciousness of the people as Orientals
- To endeavor to evaluate the morals of the people, giving up the over emphasis on materialism
- To strive for the diffusion of the Japanese language in the Philippines and to terminate the use of English in due course.
- To put importance to the diffusion of elementary education and to the promotion of vocational education.
- To inspire the people with the spirit to love labor.
THE 1973 CONSTITUTION
The 1973 constitution provided specific provisions on education in several sections that demonstrates the important role assigned to education in creating the New Society. Section 8 of Article XV provides that: “All educational institutions shall, be under the supervision of an subject to regulation by the state. The state shall establish and maintain a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the goals of the national development”.
Other education-related provisions are found in section 9 and 11.
THE FREEDOM CONSTITUTION OF 1986
Article XV, Section 8 contained the specific provisions on education. Thus the educational system during the interim period was basically the same as the one operating under the Martial Law.
THE 1987 CONSTITUTION
Section 17 of the Constitution states:” The state shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total human liberation and development”
This general principle was defined in sections 1-5 of article IV on Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports Education.
THE ROYAL EDUCATIONAL DECREE OF 1863
In an attempt to correct the existing deficiencies in education, the Royal Educational decree of 1863 was promulgated. The main objective of the decree was to establish a system of elementary schools for the country and to provide training for teachers in order to “broaden as much as possible the teaching of the Holy Catholic Faith, of the language of the fatherland, and of the elementary knowledge of life.”
EDUCATIONAL ACT OF 1901
In 1901, a few years after the establishment of the American Rule in the country, the Philippines Commission passed the first comprehensive school law for the Philippines.
The main objective of the Educational Act of 1901, which is also known as Philippine Commission Act no.74 and considered as the “ Organic school law of the Philippines” was to establish a highly centralized educational system in the country.
EDUCATIONAL ACT OF 1940
The educational act of 1940 during the Commonwealth period ushered a new era in educational history. The primary aim of the act was”to meet the increasing demand for public elementary instruction at the same time comply with the constitutional mandate on public education.
EDUCATIONAL ACT OF 1982
The act provides for the establishment and maintenance of an integrated system of education (both formal and non-formal) relevant to the goals of national development. In recognition of the right of every individual to have equal access to relevant quality education. The act defines the structure of the forma education consisting of elementary , secondary and tertiary levels as well as delineates the objectives of each category.
THE PHILIPPINES BILINGUAL POLICY (BEP)
The policy provided an operational definition of Bilingual Education in the Philippines, which is the separate use of Filipino and English as the media of instruction in specific subject area. ( as reiterations of DECS order No. 25 of 1974- Implementing Guidelines for the policy on Bilingual Education
FREE PUBLIC SECONDARY ACT OF 1988
The act established and provided for a free public secondary education to all qualified citizens.
THE HIGHER EDUCATION ACT OF 1994
The act created the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) which is independent and separate form DECS.
TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1994
This Act (R.A. No. 7796) which is also known as the TESDA Act of 1994, created the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority, providing for its powers, structure and for other purposes. The general aim of the Act is to provide”relevant, accessible, high quality and efficient technical education and skills development in support of the development of high quality Filipino middle-level manpower responsive to and in accordance with Philippine development goals and priorities”.
HIGHER EDUCATION MODERNIZATION ACT OF 1997
Otherwise known as R.A. 8292. This act provides among others for the uniform composition and powers of the governing boards of state universities and colleges, with the chairman of CHED as the chair of the governing boards of all SUCs.
AN ACT TO LENGTHEN THE SCHOOL CALENDAR
Under this act, the school year shall start on the first Monday of June but not later than the last day of August. In the implementation of this act, the Secretary of Education shall determine the end of the regular school year, taking into consideration the Christmas and summer vacations, and the particular circumstances of each region.
GOVERNANCE OF THE BASIC EDUCATION ACT OF 2001
This act contains provision that are also found in the educational act of 1982 regarding the organizational structure of the educational bureaucracy. The important provision of this act is the remaining of the department of education, culture and sports to the department of education
PSYCHOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF EDUCATION
Learning is not a function of the mind alone but of the total person which is the overreaching principle of holistic education, that is, to provide learning opportunities for the development of the physical, intellectual, psychomotor, character and social development of human beings.
Definition of Holistic Education
The concept of holistic education, based on a spiritual/philosophical orientation’s encapsulated in the Primer for 2002 Basic Education Curriculum:
“The Department of Education envisions every learner to be functionally literate, equipped with life skills, appreciative of the arts and sports, and imbued with the desirable values of a person who is makabayan (patriotic), makatao (mindful of humanity), makakalikasan ( res-pecful of nature) and maka-diyos (godly).
Purpose of Holistic Education
The purpose of holistic education is to prepare students to meet the challenges of living as well as schooling. To ensure holistic education, it is important for young people to learn a variety of human concerns which include knowing and understanding about the following: (Holistic Education, 2003)
- Healthy relationships with others
- Social development
- Beauty, truth and transcendental experience
Cognition represents the manner by which a human being acquires, stores, processes and uses information about the internal and external environment.
Three famous cognitive psychologists:
- Jean Piaget- considered the development of the intellect according in four sequential stages that form a continuum of mental processes which increasingly become more sophisticated as the individual grows and develops.
- Jerome Bruner- like Piaget. Bruner considered intellectual development as taking place in stages, from the simple to the complex. According to Bruner, human beings represent in their minds the world around them based on the cognitive level they are in at a particular point in time, however, unlike Piaget, Bruner did not consider cognitive levels as age-bound.
- Lev Vygotsky- on the other hand, he focused on the important role of language and social interaction in cognitive development. To Vygotsky, it is necessary to understand the interrelations between thought and language, in order to understand intellectual development.
Social Emotional Development
Social emotional development, like cognitive development is the product of interaction between the biological and environmental factors. The social dimension refers to the interaction with others, while the emotional refers to feelings about oneself.
Eric Erikson is known for “identity crisis”. He formulated a theory of social-emotional development based on his extensive experience in psychotherapy and dealings with children and adolescents from all social class levels. He proposed that socialization consists of “the eight stages of man” each stage involves a “psycho- social crisis”.
|Trust vs Mistrust Stage||0-11 year||HOPE|
|Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt||2-3 years||WILL POWER|
|Initiative vs Guilt||4-5 years||PURPOSE|
|Industry vs Inferiority||6 age of puberty||COMPETENCY|
|Industry vs Identity Diffusion||13-20 age of adolescence||FIDELITY|
|Intimacy vs Isolation||Over 20, young adult||LOVE|
|Generativity vs Self- Absorption||Adulthood||CARE|
|Integrity vs Despair||Mature adulthood||WISDOM|
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
Lawrence Kohlberg, proposed six stages of moral development. The first three of which share many features with the stages in the Piagetian model. He believes that moral development tales place through a series of six under three levels of development:
- Stage 1-Obedience and Punishment Orientation
- Stage 2- Self-interest Orientation ( individualism, instrumentation and exchange)
- Stage 3- Good boy/Good Girl Orientation (interpersonal accord and conformity)
- Stage 4- Law and Order Orientation (authority and social-order maintaining)
- Stage 5- Social Contract Orientations
- Stage 6- Principled Conscience Orientations
Taxonomy of the Affective Domain
Krathwohl, Bloom and Masia ( 1956) developed a taxonomy of objectives in the affective domain. Affective phenomena run through from simple behaviors to increasing more complex ones that require organization and characterization or internalization
(adapted from Krathwohl, D. Bloom, B, and Masia, B. (1964 ) Taxanomy of Educational Objectives)
Taxonomy of the Psychomotor Domain
Holistic education not only involves the development of the cognitive and affective domains. It also involves the development of the psychomotor domains which pertain to physical movement, perceptual abilities and non-verbal communication. Harrow ,A.J. developed a taxonomy of objectives for psychomotor with six categories:
- Reflex Movements- this includes segmental reflexes.
- Fundamental Movements- this include walking, running, jumping..etc.
- Perceptual Abilities-.this include kinesthetic, visual, auditory, tactile and coordination.
- Physical Abilities- involve endurance, strength, flexibility, agility, and dexterity.
- Skilled Movements- these are the movements necessary in games, sports, dances and the arts.
- Non-Discursive Communications- these relate to expressive movements through posture, gestures, facial expressions and creative movement.
HISTORICAL DIMENSION OF EDUCATION
Education is as old as life itself. No one can present an accurate account concerning the origin of education. There are 2 opposing school of thoughts when it comes to origin of education.
- Evolutionist – education started form primitive people
- Creationist- education started from Adam and Eve
Modern day education owes much of it system to the institutions established by the ancient civilizations of China, India, Israel, Egypt, Greece and Rome
- Chinese are descendants from the rivers banks of Huang Ho and Yangtze River.
- Aimed at selecting and training people for public services.
- Emphasis on modeling a person’s character and moral values.
- Believed that government has responsibility to provide education
- Centered on the mastery of Chinese language and classical literature particularly the work of Confucius ( the first teacher in China).
- Analects- the most revered Chinese classical literature which contains the sayings of Confucius.
- Egyptians were polytheist people (worshippers of many gods)
- Pharaohs were considered their god and king
- Priest and scribes were teachers of noble class
- Parents were teachers of lower class or fellahin
- Education was highly practical and empirical
- They devised a system of picture writing called hieroglyphics.
- Provide the modern world with the basic foundation of education, art, music, literature, mathematics, engineering, architecture, astronomy, geography, geology, medicine etc.
- Ancient Greece was divided into several Poleis (small city-states)
- Greeks were mixture of Germanic and Aryan stock ( strong race)
- Sparta and Athens were two or more popular poleis
- Constant struggle between Sparta and Athens resulted in Peloponnesian War which lasted for 27 years.
- Sparta was the largest polis
- Purely military city-state
- Mothers functioned as state nurses
- At age 7 boys were turned over to Paidonomus- a military commander who cared for boys until age 18
- Boys stayed with the paidonomoud until
- At 18 boys prepare for the military training
- At 20 get assigned for actual war
- At 30 they are compelled to many
- Girl’s education was limited to the instructions given by their mothers
- Because of their system, there was no famous Spartan
- Men sana en coporesano’(sound mind sound body) . This is the ultimate aim of Athenian education
- Democratic form of living, democracy is the lasting legacy of Athens to the world
- Athens preserved the family
- All schools were private
- Boys were separated from girls
- Form-0-7 yr old, boys stayed at home received training form Paidogogus ( an educated slave)
- Palaestra- a public gymnasium were boys had their physical training under a Paedotribe
- Pentathlon (running, jumping, discus, javelin and wrestling
- Kitharistes- music teacher, teaches poetry like lliad and Odyssey
- Grammarian-Writing teacher
- At 18 if Athenian boy finished his training he will be called an Ephebos ( novice citizen), after
- The Sophist ( New Class of Teachers)
Sophist were well traveled men who were mostly non-citizen of Athens, they offered new perspective in learning through declamation and oration, grammar, rhetoric, critical and reflective thinking.
Protagoras- Chief of the Sophist
The 3 Great Educational Theorists
- Socrates-he postulated” know thyself” and accepted the fundamental principles of Protagoras that man is the measure of all things
- Plato –wrote the “Republic”, he advocated a government which he termed Aristorcratic Socialism (philosophical king, warrior and artisan)
- Aristotle- father of modern sciences
- Rhetorical Schools ( founded by Sophists)
- Philosophical Schools
- Academy- founded by Plato
- Lyceum- founded by Aristotle
- School of Stoics- by Zeno
- Epicurean-by Epicurus
- Combined Rhetorical and Philosophical School
- University of Athens-most teachers were Sophist supported by Athenian Government bust disappeared when Constantine declared Christianity as official religion
- School Outside Greece- University of Alexandra (Egypt) Built in honor of Alexander the Great
Famous Alumni- Euclid (geometry), Erastosthenes ( Geography and Astronomy), Archimedes ( Physics)
Pragmatic education-strived to find practical application of the knowledge they acquired and activities they pursued.
- Early Roman Education (home based education)
- Hellenized Roman education- started when Rome’s contact with Greek civilization then finally conquering Greece.
Stages of Roman Education:
- Elementary (7-10)= Literator
- Secondary (10-16)=Gramaticus
- Higher Education (16 up)=Rhetorical
- Medieval education started when the roman empire fell around 400 Ad
- Christianity was declared as the official religion of the state by Constantine the Great, therefore Catholics grew in number and power
- Hierarchy of Church in Middle ages:
- Pope-leader of the church and held office in Rome
Movements During Middle Ages
- Monasticism-advocated by St. Benedict. They were called ”monks” and stayed in monasteries which serve as repositories of classical literature.
- Scholasticism-“Education as an intellectual discipline.
Anseim- Father of Scholasticism
Abelard- One of the famous schoolmen
St. Thomas Aquinas= wrote “Summa Theolagiae” (official doctrine of Catholic Church)
Early School During Middle Ages
- Catechumenal School- “catechumens” are new converts, they held their classes in small churches
- Catechetical School- for in-depth training in religion
- Episcopal/Cathedral School-organized by bishop to train clergy
The Medieval University
- The most important contribution of the middle ages
- The first universities focused on teaching medicine
- University of Napes (the first organized university
Composition of Medieval University
- Studium Generale ( entire studentry)
- Nation (students and teachers who came from same place of origin)
- Councilor (leader of Nation)
- Facultas (teachers who teaches the same subjects
- Dean (leader of Facultas)
- Rector (chosen by councilors and facultas)
Degree Offered by Medieval University
- At 13 to 14, a boy may enter a university and study Liberal Arts
- At 21 teach younger boys
- At 25 write thesis
- If the students pass the thesis defense he will receive Licential Docebdi
- Remaissance Period (the peak of Arts and Sciences)- Renaissance is considered the start of modern period
- Reformation Period- Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses containing the abuses of the church to the door pos of his church.
- Counter Reformation= to win back protestants, the pope assigned 3 congregations to head counter-reformation.
- Brothers of Christian School (founded by St. La Salle)
- Society of Jesus ( founded by St. Francis of Loyola)
- Jansenites ( founded by St. Cyrene)
Notable Names in Education
- Socrates-“know thy self”
- Plato-wrote the “Republic”
- Aristotle-Father of Modern Sciences
- Ciero-Wrote the “Oratore”
- Quintillian-Wrote” Institution Oratoria” he was a famous Grammaticus
- Anselm-father of scholasticism
- Abelard- spearheaded Conceptualism
- St. Thomas Aquinas- “wrote” Summa Theolgiae”
- Erasmus- suggested that education be in accordance with the needs of society, he was a humanist who advocated the importance of studying the character of the child
- Ascham- wrote the “Schoolmaster” condemning brutal punishment in English schools during his time.
- John Amos Comenius- father of modern education, he wrote the first picture book”Orbis Senualium Pictus”
- Mulcaster-said that” Education should be in accordance with nature”
- John Locke-“tabula rasa’ ( blank sheet)
- John Jacques Rosseau-wrote”Emile” (Education should be in accordance with the nature of the child)
- Pestallozzi- defined education as natural ,symmetrical and harmonious development of the faculties of the child
- Herbart- conceived education as aimed towards the development of morality and virtue. He is famous for the Herbatian Method in psychology
- Froebel-father of kindergarden
- John Dewey- “Education is not preparation for life, it is life”
- St.John Baptiste de la Salle- patron saint of teachers
- Maria Montessori-advocated the child- centered education and prepared environment
- Had its beginning in the teachings of Confucius but the following sages took the lead in building its formulation. Mencius and Hzun-Tzu.
- Confucius is the Latinized name for Kung-Fu-Tzu-Fu-Tzu. tze which means master, is a polite suffix added to the names of most of the philosophers during the Chou Dynasty.
- Confucius was the founder of the Ju School which was known in the west as the Confucian School.
- The Ju or Confucian School emphasized matters concerning human-heartedness and righteousness and the six liberal arts commonly translated as Liu Yi or the Six Classics namely:
- Yi Ching or the Book of Changes
- Shi-Ching or the Book of Odes
- Shu-Ching or the Book of History
- Li-chi or the Rituals and Rites
- Chu’unCh’iu or the Book of Spring and Autumn Annals
- The primary goal of Confucius was not just to make his” disciples” to ne well versed of the Classics but to be”rounded men”, useful to the state and the society. Thus, he taught them various branches of knowledge (ancient cultural history, interpretations baed on his moral concepts) based on the different Classics.
- Confucius’philosophy is HUMANISTIC. It occupies mainly with HUMAN RELATIONS and VIRTUE. This, his concept of the Yi (Righteousness) and Jen (human heartedness).
- Counfucianist’s great virtue were: benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, sincerity and harmony.
- Confucious’ Ideas
- His Ethics is based upon the nature of man and society’
- For him MAN is essentially a social being; he is the main component of a society (made by the individuals who compose it and the interaction they have each other)
- A MORAL man is the cooperating member of the society.
- The measures of the man’s life is not ”how long” but “how good”.
- All men desire happiness and in order to achieve it everyone’s goal must be to make each other happy.
- The secret of his mark in history is based on the great emphasis on the Supremacy of HUMAN VALUES. WISDOM is to KNW men; VIRTUE is to LOVE men”.
- A government is GOOD when it make its people happy
- The government should bring about welfare and happiness of the whole people.
- A good government must be administered by the most capable men of the country- those who have the CHARACTER and KNOWLEDGE.
- Character and knowledge were produced by PROPER EDUCATION
CONFUCIANISM: DOCTRONE OF JEN
- Jen or benevolence is the central thesis of his whole system- his ethic, politics and his life ideal-flowed from this; this is the PERFECT and SUPREME VIRTUE.
- The Jen stresses correct procedure fir human relations-proper way for men to meet each others leading to positive efforts for the good of others.
- A man of Jen is man of all around virtue
- Jean is the Confucian ideal of:
- Cultivating human relations
- Developing human faculties
- Sublimating one’s personality
- Upholding human rights
- To achieve Jen one must practice the Chung and the Shu (the Principle of Reciprocity).
- Chung- means faithfulness; a state of the mind when one is completely honest with himself
- Shu- means altruisn; it is regard for the others; a state of mind when one has complete understanding and sympathy with the outside world, the opposite of selfishness.
CONFUCIANMISM DOCTRINCE OF YI
- Literally,Yi means righteousness
- The concept of Yi is the one that upholds man’s conduct
- It is the highest principle embodied in the activities of mankind
- Spirit of confucianis
- Confucianism is not a Religion but a Philosophy and a system of Ethics. Confucianism emphasizes human relationships- how to live in harmony with others. Man’s personality reflects itself in his actions and behavior in the five relationships:
- Governmental (King and Subject)
- Parental (Father and Son)
- Conjugal ( Husband and Wife)
- Fraternal ( Elder Brother and Younger Brother)
- Friendship ( Friend and Friend)
Confucianism upholds (5) constant virtues:
- Human heartedness (jen)
- Righteousness (yi)
- Propriety (li)
- Wisdom (chin)
- Sincerity (hsin)
Chinese Ethical Principles or Doctrine of Social Norms
- This is the most significant contribution of Confucianism in the Chinese civilization.
- It stresses that every man is encouraged to practice filial piety and fraternal love. This action when extended to a larger social group would mean regulation of the family and also the good government of the state. This could translate to PEACE in the world.
Doctrine of the Social Status or the Rectification of Names
- Refers to the idea of the position of man among men;that every man must be in his proper place and with is proper responsibilities and duties.
- Every name contains certain implications which constitute the essence of that class of things to which the name applies.
- Mencius represents the IDEALISTIC Wing of Confucianism.
- He is famous f9e his theory on The Original Goodness of Human Nature
- Human nature is neither good or bad
- Human nature can either be good or bad
- The nature of some men is food while the other is bad
- Human nature is good
- For him, he proof of the original goodness of human nature is COMMISERATION. This feeling where man cannot bear to see the suffering of others.
- Four (4) Elements that what makes man, MAN
- The Feeling of Commiseration- the beginning of human heartedness (jen)
- The Feeling of Shame and Dislike-the beginning of righteousness (yi)
- The Feeling of Modesty and Yielding- the beginning of propriety (li)
Mencius’ Political Philosophy
- Man is a political animal
- Man can fully developed these relationships only within state and society
- Concerned on having GOOD Government-depends on the good example of the ruler.
- Curriculum emphasizes on social reforms as the aim of education. It focuses on student experience and taking social actions on real problems.
- Method of teaching incude the problem oriented type (student are encouraged to critically examine cultural heritage), group discussions, inquiry, dialogues, interactions and community-based learning
- The classroom will serve as a laboratory in experiencing school practices-bringing the world into the classroom.