Principles and Strategies of Teaching (LECTURE)
“If your plan is for one year… plant rice; if your plan is for ten years…plant a tree; but if you plan is for eternity… EDUCATE children.”
A. BASIC CONCEPTS
- Strategy of Teaching- Refers to the science of developing a plan to attain goal and to guard against undesirable results. It means the art of using psychological plan in order to increase the probabilities and favorable consequences of success and to lessen yhe chances of failure.
- Method of Teaching- refers to the series of related and progressive acts performed by a teacher and the students to attain the specific objectives of the lesson. It is a plan involving sequence of steps to achieve a given goal or objective.
- Technique of teaching-refers to the personalized style of carrying out a particular step of a given method. It is a skill employed by the teacher in carrying out the procedures or act of teaching.
- Device-is a teaching aid or tool to facilitate instruction, like pictures, flash cards, etc.
The Teacher As a Corporate Professional
- Dress suited for a professional
- Tasteful accessories (jewelry, bags, shoes, etc)
- Tasteful make –up for female
- Personal hygiene
- Professional walking
- The professional ‘Sit”
- The professional “handshake”
Classification of Teaching Methods
- Traditional: old-fashion way of teaching
- Time-tested: methods that stood the test of time and are still being used at present
- Progressive: these are newer and more improved methods of teaching
-It makes use of the principles of learning
-It utilizes the principles of “learning by doing
-It provides for growth and development
-it liberates the learners
-it stimulates thinking and reasoning
Variables That Affect Teaching Method
- Nature of students
- Nature of subject matter
- The teacher
- School environment
- Teacher’s knowledge of group dynamics
B. MANAGEMENT OF INSTRUCTION
Learning Objectives: Their importance and Construction
What is a Learning Objective?
A learning objective is a statement of what students will be able to do when they have completed instruction. A learning objective has three major components:
- A description of what the student will be able to do;
- The conditions under which the student will perform the task; and
- The criteria for evaluating student performance
What is the difference between a goal and a Learning Objective?
A Goal is a statement of the intended general outcome of an instructional unit or program. A goal statement describes a more global learning outcome. A learning objective is a statement of one of several specific performances, the achievement of which contributes to the attainment of the goal. A single GOAL may have specific subordinate learning objectives. For example
GOAL: The goal of Learning Assessment course is to enable the students to make reliable and accurate assessment of learning.
Learning Objectice#1: Given a learning objective of the student will be able to develop an appropriate multiple-choice question to measure student achievement of the objective.
Learning Objective#2: Given a printout from an item analysis of multiple choice exam the student will be able to state the accuracy of the test scores
Learning Objective#3: Given the discrimination and difficulty indices of an item the student will be able to determine if the item contributes to the reliability of the exam.
Why Are Learning Objectives Important?
- Selection of the content
- Development of an instructional strategy
- Development and selection of instructional materials
- Construction of tests and other instruments for assessing and then evaluating student learning outcomes
How Do You Write A Learning Objective?
- Focus on student performance, not teacher performance
- Focus on product, not process
- Focus on terminal behavior, not subject matter
- Include only general learning outcome in each objective.
A learning objective is a statement describing a competency of performance capability to be acquired by the learner. There are three characteristics essential t0o insuring clear statements of objectives.
Behavior- First, an objective must describe the competency to be learned in performance terms. The choice of a verb is all-important here. Such frequently used terms as know, understand, grasp, and appreciate do not meet his requirement. If the verb used in stating an objective identifies an observable student behavior, then the basis for a clear statement is established. In addition, the type or level of learning must be identified.
Criterion- Second, an objective should make clear how well a learner must perform to be judge adequate. This can be done with a statement indicating a degree of accuracy, a quantity or proportion of correct responses or the like.
Conditions- Third, an objective should describe the conditions under which the learner will be expected tperform in the evaluation situation. The tools , references, or other aids thus will be provided or denied should be made clear. Sometimes , one or even two of these elements will be easily implied by a simple statement. In other times, however, it may be necessary to clearly specify in detail each element of the objective. The following is an example of a completed learning objective.
OBJECTIVE: “Given a set of data the student will be able to compute the standard deviation”.
Condition- Given an set of data
Behavior- the student will be able to compute the standard deviation
Criterion – ( implied)- the number computed will be correct
Checklist for Writing a Specific Instructional Objective
- Begin each statement of a specific learning outcome with a verb that specifies definite , observable behavior.
- Make sure that each statement meets all three of the criteria for a good learning objective?
- Be sure to include complex objectives ( appreciation, problem-solving, etc) when they are appropriate
Guides or aids to writing learning objectives:
Educators and psychologist concerned with learning theory have given considerable through the various types of learning that takes place in schools. Probably the most comprehensive and widely known analysis of objectives in the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and others.
Taxonomy provides a consistent means of developing the single most powerful tool in instruction and assessment of students learning outcomes-the learning performance objective. The Taxonomy distinguishes among three major categories of objectives termed the COGNITIVE DOMAIN, the PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN, and the AFFECTIVE DOMAIN.
It is generally the Cognitive Learning Domain that is of primary concern in higher education. If we assume that faculty is more concerned with process and problem-solving activities, the categories of Taxonomy are most valuable in suggesting various kinds of behavior to use as objectives. The following list of process-oriented behaviors, which are related to the six categories of the Taxonomy, should serve as a useful guide to the faculty in preparing objectives.
TABLES OF PROCESS ORIENTED LEARNER BEHAVIORS
|KNOWLEDGE Recall, identity, recognize, acquire, distinguish|
|COMPREHENSION Translate, extrapolate, convert, interpret, abstract transform|
|APPLICATION Apply, sequence, carry out, solve, prepare, operate, generalize, plan, repair, explain|
|ANALYSIS Analyze, estimate, compare, observe, detect, classify, discover, discriminate, identify, explore, distinguish, catalog, determine, outside|
|SYNTHESIS Write, plan, integrate, formulate, propose, specify, produce, organize, theorize, design, build, systematize|
|EVALUATION Evaluate, verify, assess, test, judge, rank, measure, appraise, select, check|
Domains of Learning
Learning is a psychological process. Thus, the assessment of learning, of necessity, requires the assessment of various psychological processes. In developing assessment tools (tests), it is important that we first have an understanding of these psychological processes and how to go about measuring them. Although there are many psychological models for the process of learning, for this workbook we have chosen the taxonomy of Behavioral objectives as useful tool. In Bloom’s taxonomy, there are three fundamental learning domains: Cognitive, Psychomotor, and Affective.
Affective learning of beliefs, attitudes, and values
Psychomotor learning of physical movements, such as a ballet steps, how to pitch a curve ball, how to drill out a cavity in a molar, etc.
Cognitive learning of information and the processes of dealing with that information. There are six levels of Cognitve Learning as specified by Bloom:
- Basic Knowledge
Generally, it can be said that the first category, Knowledge, is information-oriented as it stresses the ability to recall existing knowledge. The other five categories can be termed” Process oriented” because the entall more sophisticated learner behaviors and competencies that require increasing degrees of understanding. The following are brief definitions of these six levels with a suggestion as to how to assesses this level of learning:
Basic Knowledge: To recall and memorize- assessed by direct questions. The object is to test students ability to recall facts, to identify and repeat the information provided.
Comprehension: To translate form one form to another-assessed by having students
- Restate material in their own words, 2)reorder or extrapolate ideas, predict or estimate. Assessment must provide evidence that the students have some understanding or comprehension of what they are saying.
Application: To apply or use information in a new situation- assessed by presenting students with a unique situation (i.e. one not identical to that used during instruction) and have them apply their knowledge to solve the problem or execute the proper procedure.
Analysis: To examine a concept and break it down into parts- assessed by presenting student with a unique situation of the same type but not identical to that used during instruction, and have them analyze the situation and describe the appropriate procedure or solution to the problem.
Synthesis: To put information together in a unique or novel way to solve a problem- assessed by presenting students with a unique situation NOT of the same type used during instruction, and have them solve a problems by selecting and using appropriate information
Levels of Affective Objectives
Krathwohl’s affective domain taxonomy is perhaps the best known of any of the affective taxonomies, the taxonomy is ordered according to the principle of internalization, which is to process whereby a person’s affect toward an object passes from a general awareness level to a point where the affect is “internalized” and consistently guides or controls the person’s behavior
Receiving is being aware or sensitive to the existence of certain ideas, material, or phenomena and being willing to tolerate them. Examples include: to differentiate to accept to listen ( for), to respond to.
Responding is committed in some small measure to the ideas, materials, or phenomena involved by actively responding to them. Examples are: to comply with, to follow, to commend, to volunteer, to spend leisure time in, to acclaim
Valuing is willing to be perceived by others as valuing certain ideas, materials, or phenomenas. Examples include: to increase measured proficiency in, to relinquish, to subsidize, to support, to debate.
Organization is to relate the value to those already held and bring it into a harmonious and internally consistent philosophy. Examples are: to discuss, to theorize, to formulate to balance, to examine.
Characterization by value or value set is to act consistently in accordance with the values he or she has internalized. Examples include: to revise, to require, to be rated high in the value, to avoid, to resist, to manage, to resolve.
Levels of Pyschomotor Objectives
|Observing||Active mental attending of a physical event||The learner observes more experienced person in his/her performance of the skill, asked to observe sequences and relationships and to pay particular attention to the finished product. Direct observation may be supplemented by reading or watching a video. Thus, the learner may read about the topic and then watch a performance|
|Imitating||Attempted copying of physical behavior||The learner begins to acquire the rudiments of the skill. The learner follows directions and sequences under close supervision. The total act is not important, nor is the timing or coordination emphasized. The learner is conscious of deliberate effort to imitate the model|
|Practicing||Trying a specific physical activity over and over||The entire sequence is performed repeatedly. All aspects of the act are performed in sequence. Consciousness effort fades as the performance becomes more or less habitual. Timing and coordination are emphasized. Here, the person has acquired the skill but is not as expert|
|Adapting||Fine tuning. Making minor adjustments in the physical activity in order to perfect it.||Perfection of the skill, Minor adjustments are made that influence the total performance. Coaching often very valuable here . This is now a good player becomes a better player|
The psychomotor domain refers to the use of basic motor skills, coordination, and physical movement. Bloom’ s search group did not develop in-depth categories of this domain, claiming lack of experience in teaching these skills. However, Simpson (1972) developed seven psychomotor categories to support the original domain. These physical behaviors are learned through repetitive practice. A learner’s ability to perform these skills is based on precision, speed, distance and technique.
Direct Instruction/ Lecture
- Many objectives can be mastered in s short amount of time
- Lends to valid evaluations
- Student involvement is limited to the teacher
- Depends in part to rote learning ( repetition form memory, often without meaning)
When to use?
- When the objectives indicate effectiveness
- When the teacher determines that it is the best to use of time & effort
Six steps in Direct Instruction
a. Review previously learned material
- A short review before/ with the new lesson’s interest approach
- Check & grade previous homework
- Put problems on the board ( can be part of bell-work)
- Re-teach if necessary
b. State objectives for the lesson
- Students should know what is to be taught
-Written on the board
- Follow the objective
- Use them to develop evaluations
c. Present new material
- Your teaching depends on your analysis and preparation
- Organize content
- From general to specific
- From lower level objectives to higher
- From previous information to new material
- Be aware of attention spans
- Be aware of the number of major points made
- Be repetitious
- Review and summarize
-Learning Activity, experiment, demonstration
-Allow students to practice immediately
d. Guided practice with corrective feedback
- Guided and independent practice
- Teacher controls & monitors guided
- Teacher evaluates & corrects independent
- Questions should be prepared in advance
e. Assign independent practice with corrective feedback
- A formative step, not a summative step
f. Review periodically with corrective feedback if necessary
- Check homework promptly
- Base new instruction on results
- Re-teach if necessary
Other Teaching Techniques
Situations for use:
- Generate ideas ( quantity is more important that quality)
- Students have some level of experience
- Formulate the question
- Plan for recording ideas
- Pose question to class
- Generate ides with group
- Accept all ideas ( do not criticize)
- Go back to summarize discard “ unacceptable” or unworkable ideas
- Determine the best solutions
- Common technique used in problem solving instruction, but certainly not the only technique appropriate for problem solving instruction
- Also a major technique used in competency-based education programs.
- Often misused technique. A really bad form of this technique is: read the chapter’s the textbook and answer the questions at the end of the chapter.
- Classified as an individualized instruction technique
Situations Appropriate for Use
- Discovery or inquiry learning is desired
- Access to good reference materials ( textbooks, extension publications, web resources, industry publications, etc.)
- Students may need to”look up” information
- Alternate answers may be acceptable
- Many structured lab activities are actually a form of supervise study
- Provides skills in learning that are useful throughout student’s lives. For they need to know how to locate and analyze information
- Recall is enhanced when students have to “look up” information, rather than being lectured to.
- Students have to decide what information is important and related to the question posed
- Opportunity for the students to develop writing and analytical skills.
- Easy for students to get off-task
- Students may interpret questions differently and locate incorrect information ( practicing error)
- Unmotivated students will do the absolute minimum
- Students tend to copy information from sources rather analyze and synthesize information
- Requires more time than lecture
- Relies on students being able to read and comprehend information at the appropriate level.
Procedure in Conducting Supervised Study:
- Teacher develops a list of a study questions for students to answer
- Resources and reference materials are located or suggested to students as possible sources of answers
- Students are given time in class to find answers to questions and to record the answers in their notes
- Due to time constraints, however, teachers may want to assign different questions to specific students, so that every student is not looking for the same information.
- Summary consist of discussing the correct answers to the questions with the entire class
- Teachers must be careful to emphasize that incorrect answers must be corrected
Role of the Teacher:
- Develop a list of study questions that focuses on the objectives of the lesson
- Develop the anticipated answers to the questions-it is important that the teacher has a firm idea of what are correct or incorrect answers
- Establish a time frame for completing the activity. Students need to a feel a sense of urgency, so don’t give them more time than you think they will need.
- Supervise during this activity. THIS IS NOT A TIME GRADE PAPER, MAKE PHONE CALLS, PLAN FOR THE NEXT LESSON, OR LOCATE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS IN THIS LESSEON!
- Assist students in locating information, but do not find it foe them
- Keep students on task and eliminate distractions
- Plan foe reporting of answers
Small group Discussion
- Buzz groups
- Huddle Groups
- Philips 66
-6 people per group
-6ideas to be generated
- Increased participation
- Good foe generating ideas
- Cooperative activity ( students learn from each other)
- Clearly from question or topic
- Develop a plan for grouping the students
- Plan for reporting
- Summarize the activity (what they should have learned)
Conducting Small group Discussion
- Write question or topic on the board or handout
- Give specific instructions on how the group will operate
- Establish time limits
- Circulate among the groups to help keep them on task (Not as a participant)
- Give warning near end of time allocated
- Reports: Rotate among the groups for answers
Situation for Use:
- Motivates students
- Check for understanding
- Active learning technique
- Appeals to competitive students
- High interest level
- Game must be develop by teacher
- Rules must be establish. Try to anticipate all potential situations that may occur. You do not want the effectiveness of the activity to be destroyed by arguments over rules.
- Develop a plan for determining teams
- Develop plan for keeping score
- Determine rewards- make them appropriate (usually very minor in nature)
Types: games may take a variety of forms, but most often are modeled after.
- TV game shows
- Home board games
Field Trips and Resource Persons
- First hand experiences are needed
- Need expertise
- Trial run/visit
- Special considerations (safety, grouping, etc.)
- Summarize ( don’t give up responsibility!). it is critical to know what the students have learned from the activity.
- Provide advance organizers (e.g. report forms, fact sheets)
- “plant” questions among students
- Assign students to begin the questions
With-it-ness- the teacher knows that what is going on in the classroom at all times. Seemingly, the teacher has eyes in the back of his/her head. This is not only when the teacher is in a small group setting, but when he/she is presenting a topic or students are working as individuals. It can be as simples as looking around the room frequently or making sure your back is never turned to the class. It is not necessary to know what the teacher know is going on- it is what the students believe she knows.
Other Helpful Tip on Student Control
The Hawthorne Effect is a phenomenon in industrial psychology first observed in the 1920s. It refers to improvements in productivity or quality resulting from the mere fact that workers were being studied or observed.
Pygmalion Effect (or Rosenthal effect) refers to situations in which students performed better that other students simply because they were expected to do so.
Placebo Effect is the phenomenon that a patient’s symptoms can be alleviated by an otherwise ineffective treatment, apparently because the individual expects or believes that it will work
The John Henry Effect has also been identified: an experiment may spur competition between groups, precisely because they are conscious of being part of an experiment. The term “halo effect” describe what happens when a scientific observation is influenced by the observer’s perceptions of the individual procedure, or service that is under observation. The observers prejudices, recollections of previous observations, and knowledge about prior observations or finding can all affect objectivity and must be guarded against.
Jacob Kounin’s Theory all of this came about form an incident that happened while he was teaching a class in Mental Hygiene. A student in the back of the class was reading newspaper, and the newspaper being opened fully in front of the student so that he couldn’t see the teacher. Kounin asked the student to put the paper away and pay attention. Once the student complied, Kounin realized that other students who were engaging in non appropriate behaviors (whispering, passing notes) stopped and began to pay attention the lecture. This gave him interest in understanding classroom discipline on not only the student being disciplined, but also the other students in the classroom. This is the effect that became known as the “Ripple Effect”.
Effective Instructional Technique
The Art of Questioning
Teacher ask questions over a hundred questions in a class session to encourage student thinking. Let’s examine some aspects of the Art of questioning, including: types of questions wait time,and questioning and creativity
Categories of Questions
There are many systems that teachers use to classify questions. Upon close observation, in the most systems, questions are typically classified into two categories. Various terms are used to describe these two categories ( Figure 1). The binary approach is useful because two categories are more manageable foe a beginning teacher to learn to implement the typical approach of using systems with six categories
Figure 1 categories of Questions
|Category 1||Category 2|
|Factual Closed Convergent Lower level Low order Low inquiry||Higher cognitive Open Divergent Higher level High over High inquiry|
Low inquiry questions. These questions focus on previously learned knowledge in order to answer questions posed by the teacher, who requires the students to perform ONE of the following taks:
- Elicit the meaning of a term
- Represent something by a word or a phrase
- Supply an example of something
- Make statements of issues, steps in a procedure, rules, conclusions, ideas and beliefs that have previously been made
- Supply a summary or a review of what was previously said or provided
- Provide a specific, predictable answer to a question
High inquiry questions. These questions focus on previously learned knowledge in order to answer questions posed by the teacher, who requires the students to perform ONE of the following tasks:
- Perform an abstract operation, usually of a mathematical nature, such as multiplying, substituting, or simplifying
- Rate some entity as to its value, dependability, importance, or sufficiency with a defense of the rating
- Find similarities or differences in the qualities of two or more entities utilizing criteria defined by the student
- Make a prediction that is the result of some stated condition, state, operation, object or substance
- Make inferences to account for the occurrence of something (how or why it occurred). Low inquiry questions tend to reinforce “correct” answers, or focus on specific acceptable answers, whereas high inquiry questions stimulate a broader range or responses, and tend to stimulate high levels of thinking. There is evidence to support the use of both types of question
Low inquiry questions will help sharpen students ability to recall experiences and events of science teaching. Low inquiry questions are useful if you are interests in having students focus on the details of the content of a chapter in their textbook, or laboratory experiment.
High inquiry questions encourage range of responses from the students and tend to stimulate divergent thinking. Figure 2 summarizes the differences between low and high inquiry questions. Figure 2. Difference Between Low and High Inquiry Questions
|Low inquiry (convergent)||-Recall, memorize -Describe in own words -Summarize -Classify on basis of known criteria -Give an example of something||closed||How many.. Define… In your own words.. state similarities and differences.. What is the evidence..? What is an example.. ?|
|High inquiry (divergent)||-Create unique or original design, report, inference, prediction -Judge scientific credibility -Give an opinion or state an attitude||Open||Design an experiment.. What do you predict…? What do you think about…? Design a plan that would solve? What evidence can you cite to support..?|
Wait Time. Knowledge of the types of questions, and their predicted effect on student thinking is important to know. However, researchers have found that there are other factors associated with questioning that can enhance critical and creative thinking. One of the purposes of the questioning us to enhance and increase verbal behavior of students.