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Teaching Profession (LECTURE)


Philosophical Background

Teachers are heirs to a rich philosophical heritage. Passed on to us are a number of philosophies of various thinkers who believed before us. These thinkers reflected on life in this planet. They occupied themselves by searching for answers to questions about human existence.

Five Philosophies of Education

Essentialism: Main proponent-William Bagley

Progressivism: “Education is nor preparation for life” Main proponent-John Dewey

Perennialism:Main proponent- Robert Hutchins

Existentialism:Existence precede essence” Main proponent- Jean Paul Sarte

Behaviorism: Main proponent-John Watson


Man by nature is curious. He wants to know the “whatness, whyness, and howness” of the things around him. It is in the exploring of things that he finds fulfillment for the numerous complexities that confront him. The eagerness to look for more answers or find solution to manifolds problems that beset him leads him to the undending journey of seeking for truth. Truly , this manifests the true desire of man which is to know. It affirms not only his essence, his rationality. It is also a fulfillment of his purpose to keep the truth and pass it from one generation to another so as to preserve humanity.

Ideas flow from the human mind eternally. It is in the ideas that the truth lies. Undending as the ideas are, the more the need for a man to harness and cultivates it to perfection. Ideas that are not nourished and protected will not just prevent man in possessing the truth but it will also deprive him a taste of his rationality. Hence , ideas must and should be at all times shine in luster of naturalness, profound by simplicity and contain true and real meaning.

The truth in the ideas must be preserved in as much as man wants to preserve the gift of knowledge and wisdom that it brings. And delicate as it is, it should be  protected from all forms of deterioration and artificialities. Presented it maybe in various ways, the real meaning must be conveyed at all times.

It is Philosophizing that the ideas can be best presented and conveyed. This can be best enhanced through proper education. Since then philosophy and education complement and work hand-in-hand in the acquisition of knowledge and the preservation of Truth. True enough, one can say then that Philosophy is knowledge  and Education is the most essential tool of philosophy in the search for wisdom and truth.

Man and Philosophy

The ultimate aim of man is to possess for the Truth. The process ends not in the search but in the possession of the truth. It is in his capacity to think, to rationalize that the responsibility of philosophizing is realized. It is but proper then to have a closer look on the man and a glimpse of what philosophy is, so that we can fully understand the meaning of our search for the truth and the desire to possess it.

Definition of Man

The quest for the truth is the ultimate goal of man. There is no way but up, the goal is to achieve it. Thus, man is defined vertically as Rational Animal.

Innate in man is the desire to be with his fellow beings. It is in his relationship with others that fulfillment of another dimension of his rationality is achieved. Time and time, it has been proven that man cannot live by himself alone. The need to share himself with others-share his innermost thoughts, feelings, experiences and unravel the kind of person he is-is a must fully realize the aspect of being political animal. Hence , the aim to develop a relationship not only with him spreads to other beings. Here he develops friendship, camaraderie, companionship with other fellow beings. He grows and finds fulfillment with them. This, man is defined horizontally as a SOCIAL or POLITICAL ANIMAL.

Being rational and social or political animal are not enough to realize the value of man. Another aspect must also be present, functionality. Man is created for a certain reason or purpose. He has a role to perform in order to preserve him and all other beings. He is the steward of the world. In this regard, man should work. Hence man is defines as a Working Animal.

Relationship of Philosophy and Education

While philosophy establishes the fundamental principles (concepts, theories, learning). It is Education that carries out these principle. Furthermore, it is Philosophy that provides the goal or aims while Education is the instrument in realizing these goals.

Philosophy and Education complement each other. Both of them spouse theory and practice. The absence of one of the one will make a man insufficient and aimless.

Philosophy of Education


  • Rooted from Ancient Philosopher such as Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes
  • Denies everything that has supernatural significance-dogmas/revelations-for all can only be found through nature
  • Preserves the natural goodness of man
  • Truth can only be found nature
  • Advocates: J.J. Russeau, John Lock, Montaigne
  • On Education
  1. Naturalism stands for democratic and universal way-everyone must be educated in the same manner.
  2. Education is in accordance to human development and growth
  3. Emphasis is given more on the physical development- informal exercise-and hygiene of the person rather of the 3R’s
  4. Aims to unfold the child’s potential not to prepare him for a definite vocation or social position-but to prepare him to adapt to the changing times and needs. Consequently, ones conduct is governed by impulse, instinct and experience.
  5. It puts the child at the center of educational process and prepares him to experience life as it is.


  • Ideas are the only true reality, the ultimate truths for matter is nothing but just a mere representation of ideas.
  • Emphasis is given on knowledge obtained by speculation and reasoning for its central tenet is that ideas are the only thing worth knowing for.
  • Focus is on conscious reasoning of the mind in order to attain truth. This includes the activities pertinent to the human mind such as introspection and intuition and the use of logic.
  • Advocates: Socrates, Plato
  • On Education.
  • Its aim is to discover the full potentials in child and cultivates it in order to prepare him for a better position in the society and for him to serve the society better.
  • Emphasis is given on subjects-philosophy, literature, religion and history that will develop and enhance the mind of a child
  1. Its aim is to discover the full potentials in child and cultivates it in order to prepare him for a better position in the society and for him to serve the society better.
  2. Emphasis is given on subjects-philosophy, literature, religion and history that will develop and enhance the mind of a child
  3. Methods used in teaching include lecture, discussion and the Socratic dialogue.
  4. Character development is through emulation of examples and heroes.


  • Concerns with the actualities of life, what is real.
  • Ultimate reality is the world of physical objects. Hence, reality is independent of the human mind.
  1. Objective existence of the world and beings in it
  2. Knowability of these objects as they are in themselves
  • Advocates: Aristotle, St. Thomas and Jonathan Herbart
  • On Education:
  1. The most effective way to find about reality is to study it through organized, separate and systematically arranged matter- emphasis is on subject matter concerning Science and Mathematics
  2. Methods used in teaching include recitation, experimentation and demonstration
  3. Character development is through training in the rules of conduct


  • Rooted from the dehumanization of man by technology and reaction to the traditional Philosophy of Kant and Hegel
  • Defining feature is “ existence precede essence”
  1. Man conceives and makes of himself
  • Known as the Philosophy of Subjectivity
  1. Proclaims man’s freedom in the accomplishment of his destiny
  • Conceives philosophy as something that is human life and the choice that each person has to make.
  • Advocates: Soren  Kierkegaard, Jean Paul Sarte
  • On Education:
  1. Subject matter is a personal choice
  2. Learning is based on the willingness of the student to choose and give meaning to the subject
  3. Emphasis is given on the students rather than on curriculum content
  4. Students should not be treated as objects measured or standardized
  5. Methods are geared on giving opportunities for the students for self actualization and self direction.
  6. Character development is through the personality of every individual in making a decision.


  • Rooted in idealism and realism and arose in response to progressive education
  • Defining feature is ”essence precedes existence”
  • Refers to the traditional or back to basic approach in education
  • Concerns with the fundamental of education skill and knowledge without which a person can’t either be efficient individually or socially
  • Advocates: William Bagley, James Koerner, H.G. Rickover, Paul Copperman
  • On Education:

-schooling is practical for this will prepare students to become competent and valuable members of the society.

– Focuses on the “basics”-reading, writing, speaking and the ability to compute (arithmetic)

Subjects that are given emphasis include geography, grammar, reading, history, mathematics, art and hygiene

-Stresses the values of hard work, perseverance, discipline, and respect to authorities to students.

-Students should be taught to think logically and systematically-grasping not just the parts but the whole (entirely)

-Methods of teaching centers on giving regular assignments, drills, recitation, frequent testing and evaluations.


  • What is experienced and observed is true. Hence, what is useful is true.
  • Synonymous to functionality and practicality
  • Focuses more on praxis’
  • Thought must produce actions (realization) rather than continue lying inside the mind and leading into uncertainty
  • Advocates: Charles Sanders Peicer, John Dewey
  • On Education:
  1. Involves students to work in groups
  2. Methods of teaching include experimentation, project making and problem solving
  3. Stresses on the application of what have learned rather than the transfer of the organized body of knowledge


  • The word itself means” eternal”, ageless, everlasting, unchanged’
  • Influenced by the philosophy of realism
  • Truth is universal and does not depend on circumstances of place, time and person.
  • To learn means to acquire understanding of great works of civilizations
  • Advocates: Robert Hutchins, Mortimer Adler
  • On Education:
  1. Some ideas in the past are still taught because they are significant
  2. Curriculum should contain cognitive subjects that cultivate rationally, morality, aesthetic and religious principles. This includes history, language, mathematics, logic, literature, humanities and science.
  3. Curriculum must be based on recurrent themes of human life for it views education as recurring process based on eternal truths
  4. The teacher must have the mastery of the subject matter and authority in exercising it.
  5. Aims for education of the rational person- to develop man’s power of thought
  6. The central aim of this philosophy


  • Rooted in the economic and political changes during the Renaissence period
  • Has three main lines of growth:

-intellectual (includes Education




a. Individualistic Humanism

  • Making the most out one’s life
  • Living life to the fullest
  • Stresses on individual freedom, culture and development

b. Social Humanism

  • Aims for social rather than individual happiness
  • Includes social reforms and improvement of social relationships

Advocates: Da Feltre, Erasmus, Pestalozzi

On Education:

  • Education is a process and should not be taken abruptly. The unfolding of human character proceeds with the unfolding f nature
  • The learner should be in control of his destiny
  • Concern is more on methods which include theme writing rather than of oral discussions, drills and exercises, playing.
  • Asserts the importance of playing in the curriculum
  • Emphasizes motivations and the use of praise and rewards
  • Curriculum includes subjects concerning literary appreciation, physical education, social training in manners and development


  • Contrasted the traditional view of essentialism and perinnialism
  • Emphasizes change and growth
  • Stresses that man is a social animal who learns well through active interplay with others
  • Learning is based from the questions of one’s experience of the world. Hence, it is the learner himself if who thinks, solves and gives meaning through his individual experience.
  • Proponent: John Dewey
  • On Education:
  1. Focuses on the child as a whole rather than  of the content or the teacher
  2. Curriculum content comes from the questions and interests of the students
  3. Emphasis is given on the validation of ideas by students through active experimentation
  4. Methods of teaching include discussions, interaction (teacher with students) and group dynamics
  5. Opposes the extreme reliance on bookish method of instruction, learning through memorization, the use of fear and punishment and the four (4) walled philosophy of education


  • Rapid rise was in the 18th century
  • Center of ideology is the concept of national sovereignty
  • Aims for the preservation and glorification of the State
  • Emphasis is on the development of loyalty, patriotism, national feeling and responsible citizenship
  • Advocates: Jonathan Herbart, Johan Heinrich Pestalozzi
  • On Education:
  1. The most important development was the creation of common language
  2. Stresses on the teaching of the principles of democracy and duties of citizenship
  3. Stimulates the development of the state which includes the control and support of public school system
  4. Curriculum includes the teaching of grammar, geography and history
  5. Method of teaching gives emphasis on the content regarding on nature studies, physical exercises and play activities.


  • A philosophy of learning which asserts that reality does exist outside of human conceptions. It is the individual that construct reality by reflecting on his own experience and gives meaning to it.
  • Learning is the process of adjusting one’s mental modes to accommodate new experience


  • A philosophy that aims to awaken the consciousness of individual about the social issues, concerns and problems that comfort him. This should involve him to look for solutions and engage in addressing this social concerns and issues
  • Primary goal is to achieve the elusive Social Change.
  • Advocates: Theodore Brameld, George Counts, Paulo Friere
  • On Education:
  1. Schools should originate policies and progress that will bring social reforms and others
  2. Teachers should be an instrument to encourage and lead students in program of social reforms
  3. Curriculum emphasis on social reforms as the aim of education. It focuses on student experience and taking social actions on real problems.
  4. Method of teachings include the problem oriented type ( students are encouraged to critically examine cultural heritage), group discussions, inquiry, dialogues, interactions and community-based learning.
  5. The classroom will serve as a laboratory in experimenting school practices bringing the world into the classroom.


  • Rooted in the work of Russian experimental psychologist Ivan Pavlov and American psychologist John Watson in the early 1990’s
  • Asserts that human beings are shaped entirely by their external environment
  • The only reality is the physical world
  • Man by nature is neither good nor bad but a product of his environment. Hence, an autonomous acting man is but an illusion since it negates the faculty of freewill
  • Advocates: John Watson, B.F. Skinner

Other’s ISM’s


  • Actions are geared toward the greatest total amount of happiness that one can achieved


  • Source of knowledge is the mind, independent of the senses


  • Source of knowledge is the sense-based experience


  • Form  empiricism and asserts that they only reliable form of knowledge is gained through scientific experiments


  • Pleasure is the only good thing to the person 
  • Used as a justification in evaluating action by giving emphasis on ’how much’ pleasure can be achieved and how little pain that the action entails


  • Considers as a form of ancient hedonism, it identifies pleasure with tranquility and reduction of desire
  • Epicurus claimed that the highest pleasure consists of a simple and moderate life.

Moral Principles of Teachers

Morality refers to the quality of human acts by which we call them right or wrong, good or evil

  • “Do good and avoid evil” ( Fundamental Moral Principle)
  • “Do not do unto others what you do not like others do to you” (Kung-fu.tzu)
  • Act in such a way that your rule can be the principle of all ( Immanuel Kant)
  • Eight Fold Path (Buddists)
  • Koran and Five Pillars ( Muslims)
  • Ten commandments and Beautitudes ( Christian)

As teachers, we are expected to be a person of good moral character as exempliefied by being human, loving, virtues; and mature.

Teachers values Formation

Values are taught and caught.

Values have cognitive, affective and behavioral dimensions

Value formation includes formation in the cognitive, affective and behavioral aspects

Value formation is training of the intellect and will

Max Scheler’s Hierarchy of Values

Pleasure Values

Vital Values

Spiritual Values

Values of the Holy


Teaching is a part of life of a committed teacher. To be an effective teacher, you do not only posses knowledge of educational theories. You also possess a willingness to assume your multifaceted roles.



This involves the skill of a teacher in planning, organizing, controlling, communicating, motivating, developing and managing.


Skills like creativity, dependability, resourcefulness, persuasiveness, discipline, memory, perceptiveness and other personal skills related to self-management


This refers to skills a kin to work content. It includes the teacher’s knowledge of the subject matter to be taught, as well as his understanding of philosophical, psychological, legal, social, historical dimensions of education.

a. The professional teacher possesses an in-depth understanding of the principles governing human behavior.

b. The professional teacher exhibits attitudes that poster learning and authentic human relationship.

b.1  attitude towards him/himself

b.2 attitude towards others

b.3 attitude towards peers, superiors, and parents

b.4 attitude towards the subject matter

c. The  professional teacher possesses mastery of the subject matter

d. The professional teacher must possesses the competency to facilitate learning through appropriate teaching skills

e. The professional teacher must be able to translate knowledge into  practical/reality



A novice teacher is confronted with various apprehensions. One worries how to efficiently handle the routines of classroom. To become an effective and competent teacher entails a tedious works. One must be aware of the different roles, duties, and responsibilities a teacher must assume. These are:

  1. Teaches subjects
  2. Enrolls pupils/students
  3. Prepares effective lesson plans
  4. Prepares visual aids and other devices for instruction
  5. Sees to it that pupils/students in his/her advisory class provided with necessary textbooks when available.
  6. Implements rules and regulations
  7. Conducts guidance services for his/her advisory class
  8. Evaluates pupils/students progress and provides various experiences for their continuous development
  9. Supervises curricular and co-curricular projects and activities of the pupils/ students
  10. Checks/records the attendance of the pupils/students
  11. Keeps up-to-date anecdotal records of pupils/students
  12. Keeps school records and prepares required reports
  13. Keeps parents informed on pupils/student’s progress
  14. Attends and participates in in-service trainings and faculty meetings
  15. Executed the administration of school polices designed for the welfare of the pupils/student’s
  16. Maintains membership in professional organizations
  17. Works with other school personnel, parents, and the community
  18. Participates in the socio-economic development projects in the community
  19. Coordinates and cooperates with other teachers in school projects or activities
  20. Safeguard school facilities and equipment
  21. Does other related works



The teacher as a person cannot be detached from a teacher as a professional. Other than the skills of an effective teacher, the teacher as an individual person must possesses certain psychologically/personal characteristics, such as:

a. Personality Characteristics

a.1 achievement/Intelligence

a.2 directness

a.3 flexibility

a.4 emotional stability

a.5 self- motivation and drive

a.6 dominance and self confidence

a.7attractiveness and pleasantness

a.8 refinement

b.  Attitude

b.1 Motivation to teach

b.2 empathy  toward learners

b.3 commitment

b.4 objectiveness

b.5 buoyancy

b.6 resourcefulness

b.7 cooperativeness

b.8 reliability and dependability

c. Experience

c.1years of teaching

c.2 experience in subjects taught

c.3 experience with particular grade/year level

d. Aptitude/achievement

d.1 scores in ability test

d.2 college grade/point average

d.4 student teaching evaluations



  • A unified framework for teacher development
  • An integrated theoretical framework that defines the different dimensions of effective teaching
  • Effective teaching means being able to help all types of students learn the different learning goals in the curriculum.
  • It is based on the core values of Filipino teachers and on effective teaching and learning
  • It is based on the seven domains, which one representing the desired features of the teaching and learning process.



Schools and community are linked together to provide support to parents who are charged with the primordial responsibility to educate their children. Schools will not succeed without the participation of parents. (NCBTD-Based In-Service Teacher  Training Modules. The members of the community, in addition to the parents and the school, include the local government units, the non-government agencies civic organizations and all the residents


 The influence of parental involvement on a student’s academic success should not be underestimated. While brain power, work ethic,and even genetics all play important roles in student achievement, the determining factor comes down to what kind of support system she has at home.

School and Community Relations

The school and the community are the mainsprings of effective and powerful forces that can creat a wholesome climate for mutual gains and betterment

  • PTCA
  • Public safety, beautification and cleanliness
  • Instructional centers in the community

Linkages and Networking with Organizations

The school can enjoy linkages and networking activities with international, national and local organizations in the community for mutual benefits and assistance needed

  • International (Pi Lamda Theta, Innotech, World Council for Curriculum Instruction)
  • National and local ( cross enrollment, joint researches)


Organizational Plan

Structured Classroom:  The learning activities in a structured classroom are well-planned ahead of time, and the procedures follow accepted rules and regulations established by the school.

Flexible Classroom: In a flexible classroom, there is allowance for free movement, time allotment and even in decisions regarding modes of undertaking the learning activities.

-Individualized approach



Good time management is the key to a smooth flow of planned activities

Teachers must be able to plan thoroughly for their daily lessons and for additional activities such as:

  • Parent –teacher conference after class
  • Working with other teachers during occasional school events
  • Preparing new teaching devices
  • Advanced request for supplies and materials for the week’s lessons and for learning centers
  • Supervising students along the corridors and school grounds or while eating in the canteen

Filler or Emergency Activities

If you will be able to finish the lesson ahead of time, be ready with “fillers” or activities which are connected with the lesson

Tips for maintaining good time management

  1. Schedule all activities with corresponding time allotment ahead of time
  2. Provide enough time for everything you expected to happen
  3. Avoid rushing since you know have carefully allotted required time foe every activity
  4. Be flexible with assignment
  5. Set the example by showing that you are time-conscious

Record keeping

  • Daily attendance
  • Students Progress

Physical Environment

  • Maintaining cleanliness
  • Using proper ventilation
  • Avoiding unnecessary noise
  • Bulletin  boards and displays
  • Seating arrangements


Causes of discipline problems

  • Overcrowded students in class
  • Poor lighting facilities
  • Inadequate ventilation
  • Disorderly cabinets
  • Inappropriate seating arrangement
  • Near sources of noise


  • Cooperative learning, team learning, peer tutoring
  • Switch form one technique to another as needed arises
  • Patience, compassion, caring attitude, respect for others
  • Warm, respectable relationship with students
  • Unpretentious gestures
  • Proper facial expression
  • Kind words or praises
  • Avoiding unusual closeness/favoritism and biased treatment

Common ways of establishing discipline/classroom control

  1. Discipline is students responsibility
  2. Discipline is the teacher’s way of establishing a desirable student-oriented environment for learning
  3. Discipline is coupled with effective teaching strategies and techniques
  4. Discipline is achieved through the effects of group dynamics on behavior

Tips to make the teacher a good disciplinarian

  1. Be prepared to face a class with multi-behavior tendencies
  2. Know your students well
  3. Show your sincere concern for their welfare
  4. Commendable behavior is reciprocal
  5. Be calm, poised and tactful
  6. Be firm at all times
  7. Be enthusiastic
  8. Practice good sense of humor
  9. Speak with good voice, volume and pitch
  10. Be humble

Common ways of dealing with discipline problems


  • Using verbal reinforces that encourage good behavior
  • Using nonverbal gestures to dissuade them from mischief
  • Dialogues could help discover problems and agree on mutually beneficial solution time out
  • Awarding merits for good behavior
  • A private, one-on-one brief conference
  • Allowing students the freedom to express themselves


  • Scolding
  • Harsh words
  • Nagging
  • Long sermons
  • Keeping  students in” detention area”
  • Denying a student some privilege
  • Using ridicule or sarcasm
  • Assigning of additional homework
  • Subtracting points from grades due to misbehavior

Establishing Routine

Routine is a regular procedure or a normal practice that is to be followed. It is a schedule of activities that is mostly time-spaced and is attuned to the lesson objectives. It contributes to a smooth flow of activities this lessening the unnecessary disruptions. These include:

  • Keeping tables and chairs in order before leaving
  • Returning barrowed tools and materials after use
  • Cleaning chalk board to be ready for the next topic
  • Transferring from one room to another on time
  • Order in waiting for ones turn in borrowing books
  • Cleaning stains or drops after the lesson



Study of Nations and People, that it is “an effort  to help individuals to see the world as a single and global system and to see themselves as participants of that system.” Similarly, James Becker Says in his article, Goals of Global Education, that the overall goal of his aspect is to,”incorporate into the educational curriculum and the educational experience of each student a knowledge and empathy of cultures of the nation and the world… (and to) draw into existing courses of study the illustrations and references to political, social and cultural themes. Students  will be encourage to take a global perspective, seeing the world as a whole.” With this in mind, teaching with the adoption of the idealogy of global education, children learn to perceive themselves as a participant of a large global culture. Children  learn of various cultures and cultural perspective which makes them better able to relate and function in a one-world environment under teachers who are intellectually, professionally And humanly prepares.

UNESCO defines global education as  “a goal to become aware of the educational conditions or lack of it, and aim to educate all people to certain world standards. It may also be defined a”curriculum that is international in scope

Educational Systems of Selected Countries


Similar to Canada and England

Primary (6 years)

High school (junior high 7-10, senior 11-12)

College/university (3 to 6 years)

School year starts on March and ends in November


6 years of primary education

3 years of junior middle school, 3 year of senior middle school

Six year  of university


Kindergarten (1 year)

Elementary (6 years)

Lower secondary (3years)

Upper secondary (3 years)

University (around 4 years)

Compulsory education for children 6 to 15 years

United Kingdom

Compulsory education for children 5- 6 years old

Foundation stage (for age 3-5 years old) not mandatory

Key stage one (for age 5-7 years old) grade 1 to 2

Key stage two ( for age 7-11 years old) grade 3 to 6

Key stage three (for 11-14 years old) grade 7 to 9

Key stage four (for age 14-16 years old) grade 10 to 11

Post 16 education (not mandatory) 2-3 years

University usually 3 years (B.A. or B.Sc) 4 years (honours degree)


Pre-primary (kinder, nursery, preschool, day care)

Grades 1-4 (6 to 10 years old)

Grade 5- (11 years old)

Grade 6- (12 years old)

Grade 7- (13 years old)

Grade 8 to 12-(14 to 18 years old)

Compulsory education form 6 years old to 18 years old

Multicultural Education

Multicultural education enables teachers and educators to give value to the difference in prior knowledge, experiences of learners from diverse background and familiarity with student’s histories of diverse cultures

Teacher Exchange Program

Visiting International Faculty Program (VIF)

Fullbright Teacher Exchange Program

Inter-African Teacher Exchanges

Canadian Educators Exchange Global Teachers Millennium Awards


In order to address the challenges of the paradigm shift in the educational sector, the 21st Century Learning Goals have been set as bases of various curricular worldwide

  1. 21st Century Content

Among the emerging content areas are global awareness on finance, economy, business, entrepreneurial literacy, civic literacy and health awareness

  1. Learning and thinking skills

These are critical thinking and problem-solving skills, about communication, creativity, and innovation, collaboration , contextual learning, information and media literacy.

  1. ICT Literacy

This entails the use of technology in the context of learning, so that students know how to learn.

  1. Life Skills

These include leaderships, ethics, accountability, personal responsibility, and self direction

  1. 21st Century Assessment

These are authentic assessment procedures to measure learning outcomes


For developing basic digital skills, there is a need for new literacies to replace the 3 Rs.

  1. Solution Fluency

Capacity to define, design, and apply solution and also assess the process and the result

  1. Information Fluency

The ability to access and retrieve digital information (text, sounds, or video) while and accuracy students are aware of context

  1. Collaboration Fluency

Teamwork with peers through an exciting experience of partnership in learning

  1. Media Fluency

Capacity to analytical evaluation of messages from sources like the internet and other media such as news papers, magazines, televisions, etc.

  1. Creativity Fluency

Proficiency in art design, story-telling, or packaging messages with the use of artistic elements such as font, color, lay –out, etc.

  1. Digital ethics

This refers to the responsibility and accountability of using the digital  world, such as citing sources.


Professionalization of teaching: A Historical Perspective

History of Philippine Educational System

1987 Constitution

  • The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take opportunities steps to  make such education accessible to all.
  • The State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement
  • The State shall establish, maintain and support complete adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people

RA 7722 (Higher Education Act of 1994)

  • The State shall ensure and protect academic freedom
  • CHED is tasked by the state to identify ‘ centers of excellence” in program areas needed for the development of world class scholarship, nation building and development.

RA 9155 ( Government of Basic Education Act of 2001)

  • An act instituting a framework of governance for basic education, establishing authority and accountability, renaming the Department of Education Culture and Sports as the Department of Education

RA 7796 TESDA Act of 1994

EO 356 ( Renaming the Bureau of Non Formal Education to Bureau of Alternative Learning System)

Learning System)

  • One of the functions of the Bureau of Alternative Learning System is to address the learning needs of the marginalized group of the population including the deprived, depressed and underserved citizen

Batas Pambasa 232 ( Education Act of 1982)

  • Students have the right receive primarily through competent instruction, relevant quality education in line with national goals and conductive to their full development as person with the human dignity
  • Teachers shall be deemed persons in authority when in the discharge of lawful duties and responsibilities and shall therefore be accorded with due respect and protection.

The UNESCO ( United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organization)

  • Learning to know
  • Learning to do
  • Learning to live together
  • Learning to be

EFA (Education For All 2015)

  • Institutionalize early childhood care and development
  • Provide universal quality primary education
  • Eradicate illiteracy
  • Launch continuing education programs for adults and out-of-school youth

UN Millennium Development Goals 2015 (MGDs)

  • Reducing by half the number of people, who live in extreme poverty
  • Reducing death in mothers and children below five
  • Making primary education accessible to all
  • Reducing gender disparities
  • Providing access to reproductive health services
  • Pursuing national strategies for sustainable development
  • Reserving environment resources losses
  • Developing a global partnership for development

Child Friendly School System (CFSS)

  • Initiated by the Philippine Government and UNICEF
  • Characteristics of CFSS
  • Gender sensitive and not discriminating
  • Child centered
  • Promotes good health
  • Has the best interest of children in mind
  • Works closely with children’s families

Magna Carta for Public School Teachers (RA 4680)

  • Stability of employment
  • Teachers shall enjoy academic freedom, particularly with regard to teaching and classroom, methods.
  • Teachers salary at the very least will keep pace with the rise in the cost of living by payment of cost of living index
  • Compulsory medical examination foe free

Presidential Decree 1006 ( Decree Professionalizing Teaching)

  • Enacted during the time of President Marcos
  • Teachers will undergo professional test jointly given by Civil Service Commission and Department of Education and Culture
  • RA7836 ( Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994)
  • RA 9293 ( An Act Amending some sections of  and Development Progtam (RA7836)
  • Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers



DepEd has implemented the Teacher Education Development program (TEDM) that seeks to conceptualize the continuing career path of a teacher, starting upon entry until retirement. The TEDM is anchored from a set of competencies embodied in the National Competency Based- Teacher Standards (NCBTS).


Drawing from the Vision and Mission of the Department of Education, CB-PAST is a comprehensice appraisal system which addresses one of the mandates of the Department as embodied in the RA9155 (CB-PAST Primer , 2009). There a pressing call for teacher’s accountability that has never been as serious before. In response to relevant and quality education for the 21st Century, the Filipino teachers today need to have continuous personal and professional development that driven by individual teacher performance, as NCBTS, a professional development. This specifically stated in Domain of the NCBTS, a professional development that is driven by the individual teacher performance, as evidenced from the information resulting for various tools of the Competency-Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers (CB-PAST).

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