Biological Science Part 1

1. The adult human of average age and size has approximately how many quarts of

blood? Is it:

a) 4

b) 6

c) 8

d) 10

 

ANSWER: B -- 6

 

2. Once the erythrocytes enter the blood in humans, it is estimated that they have an

average lifetime of how many days. Is it:

a) 10 days

b) 120 days

c) 200 days

d) 360 days

 

ANSWER: B -- 120 Days

 

3. Of the following, which mechanisms are important in the death of erythrocytes (pron:

eh-rith-reh-sites) in human blood? Is it

a) phagocytosis (pron: fag-eh-seh-toe-sis)

b) hemolysis

c) mechanical damage

d) all of the above

 

ANSWER: D -- all of the above

 

4. Surplus red blood cells, needed to meet an emergency, are MAINLY stored in what organ of the human body? Is it the:

a) pancreas

b) spleen

c) liver

d) kidneys

 

ANSWER: B – spleen

 

5. When a human donor gives a pint of blood, it usually requires how many weeks for

the body RESERVE of red corpuscles to be replaced? Is it:

a) 1 week

b) 3 weeks

c) 7 weeks

d) 21 weeks

 

ANSWER: C -- 7 weeks

 

6.  There are three substances found in human blood which carry oxygen and which begin

with the letter "H". Name two of these substances.

 

ANSWER: Hemoglobin, Hemocyanin, Hemerythrin

 

7. The several types of white blood cells are sometimes collectively referred to as:

a) erythrocytes (pron: eh-rith-row-cites)

b) leukocytes (pron: lew-kah-cites)

c) erythroblasts (pron: eh-rith-rah-blast)

d) thrombocytes (pron: throm-bow-cites)

 

ANSWER: B -- leukocytes

 

8. The condition in which there is a DECREASE in the number of white blood cells in

humans are known as:

a) leukocytosis (pron: lew-kO-sigh-toe-sis)

b) leukopenia (pron: lew-kO-pea-nee-ah)

c) leukemia (pron: lew-kee-me-ah)

d) leukohyperia (pron: lew-kO-high-per-e-ah)

 

ANSWER: B -- leukopenia

 

9. The smallest of the FORMED elements of the blood are the:

a) white cells

b) red cells

c) platelets

d) erythrocytes

 

ANSWER: C – platelets

 

10. Which of the following statements concerning platelets is INCORRECT. Platelets:

a) contain DNA

b) are roughly disk-shaped

c) have little ability to synthesize proteins

d) are between 1/2 and 1/3 the diameter of the red cell

 

ANSWER: A -- contain DNA

 

11. What is the primary function of the platelets in human blood?

 

ANSWER: clotting or blocking leaks from blood vessels

 

12. When a wound occurs in humans, the platelets in the blood activate a substance

which starts the clotting process. The substance which starts the clotting is:

a) adenosine (pron: ah-den-ah-seen)

b) histamine

c) lecithin (pron: less-ah-thin)

d) thrombin

 

ANSWER: D -- Thrombin

 

13. When looking at the cross-section of the human tibia, one finds the RED marrow in

the:

a) medullary cavity

b) cancellous bone

c) periosteum

d) epiphysis

 

ANSWER: A -- medullary cavity

 

14. Lengthening of long bones in humans occurs in a particular area of the bone. This area is called the:

a) medullary canal

b) cancellous bone

c) periosteum (pron: per-E-ahs-tee-em)

d) epiphysis (pron: eh-pif-eh-sis)

 

ANSWER: D – Epiphysis

 

15. The part of the human brain which is an important relay station for the sensory

impulses and also is the origin of many of the involuntary acts of the eye such as the narrowing of the

pupil in bright light is the:

a) hypothalamus

b) midbrain

c) corpus callosum

d) cerebellum

 

ANSWER: B -- Midbrain

 

16. In the human brain, body temperature, metabolism, heart rate, sexual development,

sleep and the body's use of fat and water are influenced by this region of the brain. This region of the

the brain is the:

a) hypothalamus

b) midbrain

c) corpus callosum

d) cerebellum

 

ANSWER: A -- hypothalamus

 

17.  In which cerebral lobes is the speech center located? Is it the:

a) frontal

b) parietal

c) temporal

d) occipital

 

ANSWER: A -- frontal

 

18. In most axons, the myelin sheath is interrupted at intervals of about 1 millimeter or

more. These interruptions are called the:

a) glial

b) nodes of Ranvier (pron: ron-vee-ay)

c) collaterals

d) nodes of Babinet

 

ANSWER: B -- Nodes of Ranvier

 

19. Mosses and liverworts comprise this subdivision of plants. Name this plant subdivision.

 

ANSWER: Bryophytes (pron: bry-eh-fites) or Bryophyta

 

20.  This disease, caused by infection with the gram-negative Yersinia pestis, is transmitted by fleas from rats to humans What is the more common name for this disease?

 

ANSWER: Bubonic Plague or Black Death

 

21. Short Answer: In the mammalian body, this element plays many important roles. Try to identify this element with the fewest number of clues. This element is required to ensure the integrity and permeability of cell membranes, to regulate nerve and muscle excitability, to help maintain normal muscular contraction, and to assure cardiac rhythmicity. It also plays an essential role in several of the enzymatic steps involved in blood coagulation and is the most important element of bone salt. Name this element.

 

ANSWER: Calcium

 

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